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"Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die prematurely from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, and another 8.6 million live with a serious illness caused by smoking. Despite these risks, approximately 46.6 million U.S. adults smoke cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes also have deadly consequences, including lung, larynx, esophageal, and oral cancers.
Coupled with this enormous health toll is the significant economic burden of tobacco use—more than $96 billion a year in medical costs and another $97 billion a year from lost productivity."
According to: 6/2015's "A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction"
Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands.
Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process.
Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour.
Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential.
Let us never forget all the innocent lives that were lost on that fateful day, and once again thank all the brave civil servants who died in the line duty. Many thanks to Suzanvitti.org for these wonderful graphics.
September 8, 2017 - Cardiovascular Toxicity of Nicotine
According to the 1997 "American College of Cardiology's Cardiovascular Toxicity of Nicotine: Implications for Nicotine Replacement Therapy 1"
"Cigarette smoking is well known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nicotine affects cardiovascular function and could contribute to cardiovascular disease.
Nicotine binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors, which are located in the brain, autonomic ganglia, the adrenals and neuromuscular junction. The main cardiovascular effect of nicotine is sympathetic neural stimulation. Sympathomimetic effects are mediated by several mechanisms. Central nervous system–mediated sympathetic stimulation can occur through activation of peripheral chemoreceptors, direct effects on the brain stem and effects on more caudal portions of the spinal cord. Intrapulmonary chemoreceptors may also contribute to brain-mediated sympathetic arousal. The site that appears to be most sensitive to low levels of nicotine is the carotid chemoreceptor. Peripheral mechanisms include catecholamine release from the adrenals and direct release or enhancement of release of catecholamines from vascular nerve endings.
Nicotine works primarily by enhancing the release of various neurotransmitters, including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, vasopressin, glutamate, NO (60), calcitonin growth-related peptide (CGRP) (60) and beta-endorphin. Thus, in addition to catecholamine-mediated actions, some other of these effects, such as acetylcholine, serotonin, NO, CGRP or vasopressin release, may contribute to effects of nicotine on blood vessels."
September 7, 2017 - Nicotine Dependence, By Age Group
Graphic source: Adapted by BCJung, from Tobacco and Health Effects Slides at http://www.treatobacco.net/en/page_111.php
Here is a bar graph that shows why it is so hard for long-term smokers to quit. Given that most smokers begin smoking in their teens, by the time they are in their 50s, 3/4s are addicted to the nicotine. An even worse statistic is by the time smokers are 26, 1/2 are already addicted to the nicotine! This is the reason why the sooner smokers stop, the better off they are.
Here is a graph that shows how different nicotine delivery methods affect the level of nicotine found in the blood. Though nicotine may be fast acting (it only takes 11 seconds for the nicotine to reach the brain), it's effects don't last long, which is why smokers end up smoking more and more over time.
September 5, 2017 - September is National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month
September 2, 2017 - September is National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month
August 30, 2017 - The Relative Addictiveness of Nicotine
Relative Addictiveness of Nicotine
Graphic source: http://bigscaryideas.com/?p=160
Here is a bar chart that compares the relative addictiveness (0 to 100%) of a number of drugs. Those in blue are legal drugs, and those in red are illegal drugs. Somewhat scary to see that the two most addictive drugs are legal, of which nicotine is second only to oxycodone for addictiveness. This is a good reason to keep in mind when young children are lured into smoking without understanding what they are getting into. Before they realize it they are physically addicted to nicotine.
Ever think of nicotine as a drug? Well it is, and a very addictive psychoactive drug at that. In terms of addictiveness, nicotine is right up there with morphine. Even worse, nicotine is more addictive than cocaine, at a lower dose!
August 28, 2017 - Tobacco Use & Psychiatric Disorders
It is hard to believe that it has been 18 years since I published the first webpages that turned into this Web site. Many thanks to the thousands of visitors who contributed millions of hits during the past 15 years, and for all the nice comments along the way. I will continue to strive to make this Web site a worthwhile place to spend your time and find credible public health and health information. Thank you so much!
August 24, 2017 -
Smoking & Psychological Distress
Current cigarette smoking* among adults by degree of psychological distress† and age group§ — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2015
Starting October 1, 2014, CVS stores stopped selling cigarettes. Well, it's a start. However, if you look at where cigarettes are usually bought and sold, gas stations may be the place to stem the sale of cigarettes, as they make up 48% of where people buy cigarettes.
While statistics show that the number of cigarettes sold is declining, the tobacco industry still stands to make $230 billion in 2013. That's a lot of cigarettes sold.
Annual age-adjusted rate* of tobacco-related cancer† cases (2009–2013) and trends§ in rates (2004–2013), by state — National Program of Cancer Registries, and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, United States
"The Department is proposing in this NPRM to explicitly ban the use of electronic cigarettes on aircraft as there has been some confusion over whether the Department's ban on smoking of tobacco products includes a ban on use of electronic cigarettes. We see no reason to treat electronic cigarettes any differently than traditional cigarettes. The purpose behind the statutory ban on smoking aboard aircraft and the regulatory ban in part 252 on smoking tobacco products was to improve air quality within the aircraft, reduce the risk of adverse health effects on passengers and crewmembers, and enhance aviation safety and passenger comfort. Electronic cigarettes are generally designed to look like and to be used in the same manner as conventional cigarettes. Although a vapor, rather than smoke, is produced, the products require an inhalation and exhalation similar to smoking cigarettes. We are unaware of sufficient studies on the health impact on third parties from these vapors to conclude that they would not negatively impact the air quality within the aircraft and/or increase the risk of adverse health effects on passengers and crewmembers.
Each e-cigarette consists of three parts: The replaceable cartridge, which most often contains liquid nicotine but may contain other chemicals, the atomizer or heating element, and the battery and electronics. See Sottera Inc. v. Food & Drug Administration, 627 F.3d 891, 893 (D.C. Cir 2010). Theatomizer or heating element vaporizes the liquid inside the cartridge, and the battery and electronics power the atomizer and monitor air flow. Id. When the user inhales, the electronics detect the air flow and activate the atomizer, the liquid nicotine is vaporized, and the user inhales the vapor. Id.
Some electronic cigarette companies have claimed that their products are safe because they reportedly do not contain carcinogens or tar or produce second-hand smoke, as there is no combustion in their use. According to these arguments, while the vapor looks and feels, and may taste, like smoke produced by burning traditional tobacco products, its chemistry differs from the smoke produced from burning conventional tobacco products. The principal liquid ingredient is propylene glycol, which is widely used as a moistening food additive and an aid to vaporization. However, some research, conducted on non-asthmatic people, has shown that exposure to propylene glycol mist from artificial smoke generators may cause acute ocular and upper airway irritation, and in a few cases people reacted with cough and slight airway obstruction. See G Wieslander, D Norbäck, and T Lindgren, “Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: Acute ocular and respiratory effects,”Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2001; 58:649-655. Further, in a recent New England Journal of Medicine article, “E-Cigarette or Drug-Delivery Device? Regulating Novel Nicotine Products,” it was noted that the safety of inhaling propylene glycol has not been studied in humans. 365;3: 193-95.
July 17, 2017 - Cigarette Smoking Status* Among Current Adult E-cigarette Users,† by Age Group — National Health Interview Survey,§ United States, 2015
* Adults were asked if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and, if yes, whether they currently smoked cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all. Those who smoked every day or some days were classified as current cigarette smokers. Adults who had not smoked 100 cigarettes were classified as never cigarette smokers. Adults who had smoked 100 cigarettes but were not smoking at the time of interview were classified as former cigarette smokers. Percentages are shown with 95% confidence intervals.
† Current e-cigarette use was based on responses of“every day”or“some days”to the question,“Do you currently use electronic cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all?”asked of adults who had ever tried an e-cigarette, even one time.
§ Estimates are based on household interviews of a sample of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years and are derived from the National Health Interview Survey sample adult component.
In 2015, 3.5% of U.S. adults were current e-cigarette users. Among adult e-cigarette users overall, 58.8% also were current cigarette smokers, 29.8% were former cigarette smokers, and 11.4% had never been cigarette smokers. Among current e-cigarette users aged ≥45 years, 98.7% were either current or former cigarette smokers, and 1.3% had never been cigarette smokers. In contrast, among current e-cigarette users aged 18–24 years, 40.0% had never been cigarette smokers.
Among adults who had never smoked cigarettes, the percentage who had ever tried an e-cigarette, even one time, was highest for those aged 18–24 (9.7%) and declined as age increased Among adults aged 45 and over who had never smoked cigarettes, 1% or less had ever tried an e-cigarette even once.
Current cigarette smokers who had tried to quit smoking in the past year were more likely than smokers who had not tried to quit to have ever tried an e-cigarette (Figure 4).
Current cigarette smokers who had tried to quit in the past year (20.3%) were almost twice as likely as cigarette smokers who had not tried to quit (11.8%) to currently use e-cigarettes.
Almost one-half of current cigarette smokers (47.6%) and more than one-half of recent former cigarette smokers (55.4%) had ever tried an e-cigarette, compared with 8.9% of long-term former smokers and 3.2% of adults who had never smoked cigarettes (Figure 3).
About one in six current cigarette smokers (15.9%) and nearly one in four recent former cigarette smokers (22.0%) currently used e-cigarettes, compared with 2.3% of long-term former cigarette smokers and 0.4% of adults who had never smoked cigarettes.
Current use of e-cigarettes was about the same for men and women. Current e-cigarette use was higher among non-Hispanic AIAN adults (10.7%) and non-Hispanic white adults (4.6%) than among Hispanic (2.1%), non-Hispanic black (1.8%), and non-Hispanic Asian (1.5%) adults.
Men were more likely than women to have ever tried an e-cigarette. More than 20% of adults aged 18–24 had ever tried an e-cigarette, with use declining steadily as age increased.
Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) adults (20.2%) and non-Hispanic white adults (14.8%) were more likely than Hispanic (8.6%), non-Hispanic black (7.1 %), and non-Hispanic Asian (6.2%) adults to have ever tried an e-cigarette.
According to the April 4, 2014 MMWR Report, "Calls to Poison Centers for Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes — United States, September 2010–February 2014"
"E-cigarettes accounted for an increasing proportion of combined monthly e-cigarette and cigarette exposure calls, increasing from 0.3% in September 2010 to 41.7% in February 2014. A greater proportion of e-cigarette exposure calls came from health-care facilities than cigarette exposure calls (12.8% versus 5.9%) (p<0.001). Cigarette exposures were primarily among persons aged 0–5 years (94.9%), whereas e-cigarette exposures were mostly among persons aged 0–5 years (51.1%) and >20 years (42.0%). E-cigarette exposures were more likely to be reported as inhalations (16.8% versus 2.0%), eye exposures (8.5% versus 0.1%), and skin exposures (5.9% versus 0.1%), and less likely to be reported as ingestions (68.9% versus 97.8%) compared with cigarette exposures (p<0.001).
Calls about exposures to e-cigarettes, which were first marketed in the United States in 2007, now account for 41.7% of combined monthly e-cigarette and cigarette exposure calls to PCs. The proportion of calls from health-care facilities, age distribution, exposure routes, and report of adverse health effects differed significantly between the two types of cigarette."
It is hard to believe that it has been 16 years since I published the first webpages that turned into this Web site. Many thanks to the thousands of visitors who contributed millions of hits during the past 15 years, and for all the nice comments along the way. I will continue to strive to make this Web site a worthwhile place to spend your time and find credible public health and health information. Thank you so much!
March 1, 2012 - THANK YOU!!!
February 1, 2012 - Betty C. Jung's Web site is a Healthy People Consortium Organization
"The Consortium is a diverse, motivated group of agencies and organizations committed to achieving Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives." http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/consortium/default.aspx
I will continue to add new links to and post pertinent updates on my Public Health Blog.
For starters, click on "Map-It" graphic for "MAP-IT: A Guide To Using Healthy People 2020 in Your Community." Also, check out: Healthy People 2020 program planning tools, a toolkit for program development!
Academic Resources The Science behind Relentless Breakthroughs; An Underdeveloped Right Brain Is the Greatest Barrier to Creativity; Think Like Steve Jobs: How Design Thinking Leads to Creativity;
How I Rewired My Brain to Think Like a Designer and Unlock My Creativity;How to Declutter Your Brain and Get Organized; How to Boost Creativity: Secrets of the Creative Brain; How Clutter Drains Your Brain (and What You Can Do About It);
We Don't Need More Stuff, We Need Less (a Lot Less); Twelve Natural Ways to Enhance Brain Power; College Women's Health; Why the Conscientious Mind Is a Successful Mind; Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students — United States, 2015; Health & Academics;
Benchmarking life expectancy and cancer mortality: global comparison with cardiovascular disease 1981-2010; Basic Cancer Terms You Need to Know;Invasive Cancer Incidence, 2004–2013, and Deaths, 2006–2015, in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties — United States; Hormone replacement therapies help breast cancer grow, spread - Hormone replacement therapies could cause specialized cancer cells to induce growth, metastasis; New section: Bone Cancer; Guide to Bone Cancer; Guide to Malignant Mesothelioma; Guide to Eye Cancers; Guide to Brain Cancer; Guide to Head and Neck Cancers; Guide to Kidney Cancer; Average annual age-adjusted rates* of new cases† of common cancers (2009–2013) and deaths§ from common cancers (2011–2015) in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties¶ — United States; Cancer Words You Need to Know; Cancer incidence attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in Alberta in 2012: summary of results; Guide to Blood Cancers; CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients’ Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers;
HDL Cholesterol: The Good Cholesterol; Ozone Pollution Connected to Cardiovascular Health; Never Buy These Deadly ‘Heart-Healthy’ Foods; Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Current State of the Evidence; Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults; Treatment of Cholesterol in 2017;
How Is Heart Disease Treated?; Preventing Stroke Deaths Progress Stalled;Recent Trends in Stroke Death Rates — United States, 2000–2015;
Chinese Culture How The White Establishment Waged A 'War' On Chinese Restaurants In The U.S.; How White America Tried to Eliminate Chinese Restaurants in the Early 1900s; How a Chinatown-by-the-Sea Popped Up on the Jersey Shore; Americans of Chinese Heritage with Heavy Southern Accents in Mississippi; E. Samantha Cheng: Discovering the Mississippi Delta Chinese Legacy;
Cool Sites A- L Half in US choose cremation as views on death change; How to make your landscape photography stand out; How to photograph the solar eclipse: NASA tips for taking pictures of Aug. 21 event;4 secrets: How to take professional photos with your smartphone; Top 5 tips for photographing solar eclipse; How to take the best photos of a solar eclipse: Tips from the pros; Birdnote.org; Could artificial intelligence disrupt the photography world?; How to take video of a solar eclipse: Advice from the experts; Solar Eclipse iPhone Photography: Warnings and Tips; Smartphone Photography of the Eclipse;
Cool Sites M - Z Group Security - ATM Card Skimming and PIN - Capturing Customer Awareness Guide; Equifax: What now? My credit freeze primer. Also, don’t over react; Credit Freeze Information by State;
National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017 Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States; National Diabetes Statistic Report, 2017; Does Short Sleep Mean Higher T2D Risk for Kids? - An extra hour of sleep tied to reduction in insulin resistance; Lots of red meat and poultry linked to diabetes risk;
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about... Eclipse Across America Map;What to look for in a total solar eclipse; The Day the Sky Goes Dark: August 21, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse; How Earth looks from outer space; This is your brain on art;
Favorite Movie Sites Tobacco Use in Top-Grossing Movies — United States, 2010–2016; Tobacco Gets More Screen Time in Blockbuster Movies, Study Shows; Why Smoking in Films Harms Children; Exposure to Movie Smoking: Its Relation to Smoking Initiation Among US Adolescents; Smoke-free Movies; Smoke-free Movies and Media; 50 Best Travel Movies of the Past 50 Years;
Watch full-length movies for free; The 100 Greatest Props in Movie History, and the Stories Behind Them; Tubitv.com; Can Rotten Tomatoes Crush a Movie at the Box Office?; How to Stream Thousands of Free Movies Using Your Library Card;
Favorite Music Sites Learning with music can change brain structure - Using musical cues to learn a physical task significantly develops an important part of the brain, according to a new study; A Global Tour of Remarkable Musical Instruments; Beatles Albums Ranked Worst to Best; Top 50 Beatles Songs; The 1,000 Best Songs on Spotify @Thrillist; Blame it on the bossa nova: How music changes our perception of touch; 16 Sad Songs to Listen to When You Need a Good Cry;
Fitness Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle Also called: Sedentary Lifestyle, Sitting Disease; Physical Activity; Promoting Airport Walking - A Guide; Mall Walking - A Program Resource Guide; 10 Things That Happen to Your Body When You Stop Exercising;10 ways a daily walk can change your mind and body; Study shows a walk in the park fixes a fuzzy brain;
Graphing The Scottish Scoundrel Who Changed How We See Data - When he wasn’t blackmailing lords and being sued for libel, William Playfair invented the pie chart, the bar graph, and the line graph.; How to Create the Best Powerpoint Presentations, With Examples; 10 time-saving tips for speeding your work in PowerPoint;Guidelines for Good Visual Information Representations; Designing for the Mobile Environment – Some Simple Guidelines;
Healthcare Quality Issues Mirror, Mirror 2017: International Comparison Reflects Flaws and Opportunities for Better U.S. Health Care; AHRQ.gov's Health Literacy; Too much information can be a good thing - Psychologists examine how to package health recommendations; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights Breach Portal: Notice to the Secretary of HHS Breach of Unsecured Protected Health Information; What Makes People Like (and Dislike) Their Doctors?;
Health Education Resources Mott Poll Report: Bullying and Internet Safety Are Top Health Concerns for Parents; Qualifications of Health Education Specialists - SOPHE;
Bedbugs: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know But Were Too Disgusted to Ask; Antibiotic Use in the United States, 2017: Progress and Opportunities; Ebola detected in semen of survivors two years after infection - Researchers suggest updating WHO guidelines and exploring aging; 14 Diseases You Almost Forgot About (Thanks to Vaccines); Ebola RNA lingers in semen longer than expected;
M - Z Sexual Transmission & Prevention of Zika Virus;Ticks and Travel: What You Need to Know to Prevent Tick Bites and Illnesses; Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States (Including U.S. Territories), July 2017; Guide to Tick-Borne Diseases;
Maternal Child Health If European Borders Were Drawn By DNA Instead Of Ethnicity; DNA copying is more random than we thought;Using CRISPR, scientists efficiently edit genome of viable human embryos; In Breakthrough, Scientists Edit a Dangerous Mutation From Genes in Human Embryos; 4 Associations Between Depression in Parents and Parenting, Child Health, and Child Psychological Functioning; Parental Substance Use and
the Child Welfare System;
Nutrition Resources 20 Ways You Can Get Food Poisoning; New section: Junk Food; How Bad for You Are Fried Foods?; The 40 Unhealthiest Foods if You’re Over 40; EWG’s Dirty Dozen Guide to Food Additives;
The 10 most contaminated foods in your fridge you need to trash right now — and healthier alternatives; Improving Diet Over Time May Reduce Risk of Death
Three healthy diets shared common characteristics; Chronic liver inflammation linked to Western diet - Food, antibiotics, and gender are just some of the factors that can throw off the balance between the gut and liver, according to a new report in The American Journal of Pathology; Artificial Sweeteners Have Little or No Benefit to Health, Researchers Conclude; Artificial Sweeteners May Boost Blood Sugar, Study Finds; Souring on Artificial Sweeteners: Substances May Boost Appetite; Artificial Sweeteners Have Little or No Benefit to Health, Researchers Conclude; How Safe Is Splenda? Group Urges Caution for Artificial Sweetener; The Truth About Aspartame; Chemical Cuisine; The Bitter Side of Diet Soda: Strokes; Acids in Popular Sodas Erode Tooth Enamel; Mediterranean style diet may prevent dementia; Low Calorie Sweeteners Alter Glucose Uptake and Promote Adipogenesis in Human Fat Biopsy-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) in-Vitro and in Subjects’ Subcutaneous Fat; 6 Ways Eating Too Much Sugar Messes With Your Entire Body; Artificial sweeteners: Where do we stand?; Can Skipping Dinner Help You Lose Weight?; What does ‘natural flavors’ really mean?; Diet quality matters not just quantity in mid-to-late-adulthood; Diet May Help Prevent Alzheimer's - MIND diet rich in vegetables, berries, whole grains, nuts; The MIND Diet: A Detailed Guide for Beginners; New section: Microbiome; From ancient tribes to modern civilization, what do our microbiomes say about us?; Federal Microbiome Project Aims to Solve Tiny Riddles of Science; Healthy or Hype? Our Nutrition Expert Decodes the Latest Good-For-You Food Fads;Dietary Supplements Are Poisoning More and More People; This Man Got Hepatitis From His Energy Drinks. How the Heck Does That Even Happen?; The Supplements You Should Stay Away From; Rare cause of acute hepatitis: a common energy drink;You can improve your health in 2 weeks by cutting back on sugar; 8 'Healthy' Foods That Aren’t;Energy-drink consumption may lead to cocaine use, study says; Sweet, low-calorie foods confuse our metabolism; Herbal Supplements You Shouldn’t Try; Eating foods away from home; Is coconut oil healthy?; Sugary Drinks and Obesity Fact Sheet - The Problem: Sugary Drinks Are a Major Contributor to the Obesity Epidemic; Facts on Sugar Drink Consumption; Short-Term Removal of Sugar Reduces Sugar-to-Fat Conversion in Liver; Conversion of Sugar to Fat: Is Hepatic de Novo Lipogenesis Leading to Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Chronic Diseases?; No fads, no gimmicks: 5 food rules that stand the test of time;
Weight Loss Surgery: What to Expect;Can Skipping Dinner Help You Lose Weight?; New section: Overfat; Map of Overfat populations; Study finds 90 percent of American men overfat; Study finds 90 percent of American men overfat; ARE YOU 'OVERFAT'?Girls in the UK and US are FATTEST in the world – here’s how to tell if you’re ‘overfat’; Study finds most men and women are ‘overfat’ — here’s what this means; 90 Percent Of U.S. Men Have This Problematic Health Condition; Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat; What Causes Obesity? 10 Food Items That Can Cause Excessive Weight Gain; The State of Obesity; Study of Children Ages 10 to 17 (2016);
Public Health Data Trends in Hospital Inpatient Stays in the United States, 2005-2014; Patient Characteristics of Opioid-Related Inpatient Stays and Emergency Department Visits Nationally and by State, 2014;Emergency Department Visits Related to Suicidal Ideation, 2006-2013;
Changes in Opioid Prescribing in the United States, 2006–2015; Trends in Hospital Inpatient Stays in the United States, 2005-2014; Final Report: Opioid Use, Misuse, and Overdose in Women; Racial and Ethnic Differences in Homicides of Adult Women and the Role of Intimate Partner Violence — United States, 2003–2014; Health Behaviors of Adults: United States, 2008–2010; Opioid Overdose; Annual Surveillance Report of Drug-Related Risks and Outcomes – 2017; Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region — United States, 2006–2015; Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students — United States, 2015;
Public Health Data You Live in Alabama. Here’s How You’re Going to Die. A look at the most common causes of death by state.; Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 2011-12; New section: Occupational Health; Surveillance for Silicosis Deaths Among Persons Aged 15–44 Years — United States, 1999–2015; Costs and Outcomes of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the US;Age-Adjusted Rates for Homicides,* by Race/Ethnicity†— United States, 1999–2015; Major Depression Among Adults; Repeat Violent Victimization, 2005-14;
Public Health Sites A - C Guide to Autoimmune Diseases; Alcohol–Organ Interactions: Injury and Repair; Are YOU drinking too much? Answer these 10 questions to find out: Experts reveal the classic warning signs you've become dependent on booze; 7 Deadly Types of Cancer Directly Linked to Alcohol Consumption; The Toxic Dangers of Typical Laundry Detergent; Toxic Chemicals Found In Common Scented Laundry Products, Air Fresheners; Alcohol industry misleading the public about alcohol-related cancer risk;
Public Health Sites D-G Widely Used Pesticide Is a Buzzkill for Honeybees - Findings add fuel to the debate over whether a commonly used chemical damages insect populations; Putting Some Emotion into Your Design – Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions; Testing Finds Industrial Chemical Phthalates in Cheese; Powdered mac and cheese, like Kraft, may contain toxic chemicals; The 14 Toxic Cosmetic Ingredients to Avoid (and How to Find Healthier Alternatives); Addressing Prescription Drug Abuse in the
United States; Phthalates implicated in heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure in men; Evaluating low-dose toxicity from endocrine active chemicals; Final Report: Opioid Use, Misuse, and Overdose in Women; More than 8. 3 billion tons of plastics made: Most has now been discarded; Today's Air Quality Index;Antarctica's disappearing sea ice, from its peak in August 2016 to a record low on March 3, 2017;Stoned Plus Buzzed: Mixing Caffeine and Pot Brings New Risks; New section: Chlorpyrifos; Chlorpyrifos General Fact Sheet; This Harmful Pesticide Should Have Been Banned Years Ago. Now It Could Finally Happen; EWG's Tap Water Database; In the US, most people are drinking water that is legally “safe” but isn’t actually risk-free; Prescription Behavior Surveillance System (PBSS) ISSUE BRIEF; Opioid Prescribing - Where you live matters;Cannabis: the facts; Students Using Cannabis Fail University Courses More Often, According To Study; Public Perception of Climate Change and the New Climate Dice; Global Temperature in 2015; Mindfulness For People Who Think They Can't Meditate; Mindfulness For People Who Think They Can't Meditate; Earth to warm 2 degrees Celsius by the end of this century, studies say; The Anatomy of Procrastination;What’s in Your Water?; Heat in the southeastern United States: Characteristics, trends, and potential health impact; Emotional Intelligence Needs a Rewrite - Think you can read people’s emotions? Think again; 6 Facts About Naloxone, the Drug That Reverses Overdoses; 9 Potential Side Effects of Opioid Medications; Judicious Prescribing of Antibiotics; Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Risk of Dying from High Blood Pressure; Stroke, Heart Failure Linked to Marijuana; How to talk to yourself to control emotions; Anger and hatred can make us feel happy, says study; Fentanyl linked to thousands of urban overdose deaths; HUMAN HEALTH THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON IN THE UNITED STATES A Scientific Assessment (Summary Report); HUMAN HEALTH THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON IN THE UNITED STATES A Scientific Assessment (Full Report);
The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment Web site; A Human Health Perspective On Climate Change; Climate Change in The American Mind; How do hurricanes start? A step-by-step guide; The PHQ-9 - Validity of a Brief Depression Severity Measure; 15 Health Problems Linked to Monsanto's Roundup;How Your Legs Secretly Tell Others About What You Are Thinking; How to Be More Sensitive for an Emotionally Insensitive Person;Young adults’ daily use of marijuana a concern; College Adults and Substance Use;Marijuana Use May Promote Nicotine Consumption; How to Prepare for a Hurricane; Hurricane Irma: Storm trackers and other survival tools for mobile and desktop users; Hurricane Season Public Health Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Guidance for Health Care Providers, Response and Recovery Workers, and Affected Communities — CDC, 2017; Marijuana may produce psychotic-like effects in high-risk individuals; Emergency Response for Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities; Ground Water and Drinking Water; Helping Families Deal with the Stress of Relocation After a Disaster; Hurricane Safety Resources;Disaster Distress Helpline; Climate Change Is Complex. We’ve
Got Answers to Your Questions;
Public Health Sites H-L Living Peacefully With Tinnitus; Tinnitus - Understanding the Facts; How Tattoos Might Affect Your Workout; Cannabis risk awaits young teens with depression; What is hepatitis?; Snakebites: What You Need to Know; Migraines Are Correlated with Higher Levels of Nitrate-, Nitrite-, and Nitric Oxide-Reducing Oral Microbes in the American Gut Project Cohort; Having A Tattoo Might Make You Sweat Less (And That's Not A Good Thing); Ringing in ears keeps brain more at attention, less at rest, study finds; How to Spot a Liar within Seconds; 5 Kinds of Toxic People That You Need to Get Rid of Now; Listen Up! Protect Your Hearing (infographic); How hidden toxins in your tattoos can migrate to your lymph nodes; The ink used to make tattoos might produce cancer;
Public Health Sites M - N Cancer and Men; What Happens When You Break a Bone; Brain training has no effect on decision-making or cognitive function, researchers report; Brain Activity During Decision-making; In Witnessing the Brain’s ‘Aha!’ Moment, Scientists Shed Light on Biology of Human Consciousness; Women have more active brains than men; Playing action video games can actually harm your brain;Feeling bad about feeling bad can make you feel worse - Embracing your darker moods can actually make you feel better in the long run, psychologists find; 16 Sad Songs to Listen to When You Need a Good Cry; Depression;Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavioral or Emotional Problems in the United States; What Happens When You Have a Panic Attack; What Is a Psychotic Disorder?; Stress in America: The Impact of Discrimination;
Public Health Sites O-Z Making the Sexual History a Routine Part of Primary Care; Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Global surveillance and a call for international collaborative action; Suicide Rates*,† for Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by Sex — United States, 1975–2015; Transmitting an STD: Criminal Laws & Penalties; Can people who spread STDs be charged with attempted murder?; Can people who practice safe sex be charged with transmission of an STD?; Can people who spread STDs be locked up?'
To be charged with transmitting an STD, must intercourse have occurred?
STDs and the Law; It’s The Law: Disclosing A Positive HIV Status; What’s The Difference Between HIV and AIDS?; Condom Use During Sexual Intercourse Among
Women and Men Aged 15–44 in the United States: 2011–2015 National Survey of Family Growth; Preventing Suicide; Just Diagnosed? Next Steps After Testing Positive for Gonorrhea or Chlamydia; Suicides under age 13: One every 5 days;Unmarried Men’s Contraceptive Use at Recent Sexual Intercourse: United States, 2011–2015; Ebola, Zika & More: How Many Viruses Can Get into Men's Semen?;
Research Resources on the Net Data Sharing Statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors; Ten Simple Rules for Scientific Fraud & Misconduct; CHECKLIST: Policies and Procedures for Handling Research Misconduct Allegations;
Checklist Allows Institutions to Evaluate Their Policies and Procedures;
Pharmaceutical companies’ policies on access to trial data, results, and methods: audit study; Monsanto Was Its Own Ghostwriter for Some Safety Reviews;
The first World Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness; The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness; New atlas shows extent of light pollution – what does it mean for our health?;
Senior Health Medicines: Use Them Safely; Improving Health Literacy for Older Adults;Cognitive Impairment Detection and Earlier Diagnosis - KAER Toolkit: 4-Step Process to Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Earlier Diagnosis of Dementia; Engage Your Brain:
GCBH Recommendations on Cognitively Stimulating Activities;
Chronic lack of sleep reduces cognitive abilities, negatively impacts physical health; Why You Need to Get Enough Sleep; Insufficient sleep may add more than an inch to your waist, study suggests; Researchers identify neurons that control brain's body clock; Sleeping less than six hours a night is as bad as binge drinking and severely damages your brain, study finds; The Science of Jet Lag: 5 Surprising Findings;A dark night is good for your health;
13 Facts About Sleep Paralysis That Will Keep You Up At Night; Sleep Paralysis – Overview & Facts; Sleep Paralysis Stories – The Scariest Sleep Disorder Of All;Protein Links Gut Microbes, Biological Clocks, and Weight Gain; Why sleep matters — the economic costs of insufficient sleep; Fiber and Saturated Fat Are Associated with Sleep Arousals and Slow Wave Sleep;
Social Media Selfie Profiles; Why You Need Emoji - Emojis are the body language of the digital age; Emojis; What kind of Facebook user are you?; The misappropriation of identities of famous people on Twitter; 7 New Twitter Features (and 4 Others You May Have Missed); Online Harassment 2017; The four types of Facebook users; What do Trump's tweets say about his personality?; Our Minds Have Been Hijacked by Our Phones. Tristan Harris Wants to Rescue Them; 18 Hidden Snapchat Hacks & Features You'll Wish You Knew About Sooner; Just seeing Facebook’s logo makes users crave more; Major Facebook users share more offline, too; Can bad experiences on Facebook cause depression?; Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking; Why Facebook is so hard to resist; What your social media profile photo says about your personality; What you ‘like’ on Facebook gives away your personality; The secret system controlling your Facebook News Feed; What your Facebook ‘likes’ really say about you; Sea of selfies – social media’s monoculture threat; OkCupid and Facebook Aren’t the Only Ones Manipulating You, but That’s No Excuse;
Is the selfie trend a dangerous phenomenon?; When you're blue, so are your Instagram photos - Researchers discover an early-warning system for depression in social media images; Millennials will benefit and suffer due to their hyperconnected lives;Study says you’re one of these four types of Facebook users; The Smiley Index: Ranking Countries, Companies & Jobs by 'Smileyness'; Facebook ‘friends’ aren’t real, judge says; 29 LinkedIn Tips for Professional Networking, Business & Marketing; How to enforce life skills that tech might be eroding; 12 Free Social Media and Brand Monitoring Tools We Love (and Why); Tweet life vs. street life: Exploring the gap between content, feelings;
Statistical Programs New section: Unstructured Data; Unstructured data: The smart person's guide; How to Use Excel: 14 Simple Excel Tips, Tricks, and Shortcuts; Three quick sorting tips for Access and Excel;
Temperament People With This Personality Trait Literally See the World Differently; Why Openness To Experience Is The Key To Creativity; Seeing it both ways: Openness to experience and binocular rivalry suppression; Creative people physically see and process the world differently; People with no mind’s eye may help us boost our creativity; Sixth personality trait measures your Machiavellian potential;
Can You Predict Your Scores on an Important Personality Test?; Measuring the Big Five Personality Domains; THE HEXACO PERSONALITY INVENTORY - REVISED A MEASURE OF THE SIX MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY; New section: Big Five Personality Domains; Modern Media Is a DoS Attack on Your Free Will; Why the modern world is bad for your brain;
Electronic Cigarettes as an Introductory Tobacco Product Among Eighth and 11th Grade Tobacco Users — Oregon, 2015; Do Smokers' Lungs Heal After They Quit?; How big tobacco has survived death and taxes; Top 10 countries by highest number of tobacco deaths in 2010; Inside Philip Morris’ campaign to subvert the global anti-smoking treaty; WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control;FDA's New Plan for Tobacco and Nicotine Regulation; FDA Announces Regulatory Plan to Shift Trajectory of Tobacco-related Disease and Death; Harms of Cigarette Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting; E-Cigs May Still Damage Blood Vessels - Arterial stiffness increased immediately after vaping session; Heart Health and Smoking; Nicotine in e-cigs is not only addictive, it might also increase your risk of heart disease; E-cigarettes can damage your heart with just one puff; Chemicals in E-Cigs Connected To 'Popcorn Lung' Disease;
US Government Statistics Child Marriage in America; Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2015 - Statistical Tables; A snapshot of America's Top States for Business 2017;
Useful Sites Pack Smart; CDC Yellow Book 2018 Health Information for International Travel Online; Out of This World: The 25 Most Surreal Landscapes on the Planet; Germophobes Beware: Don’t Touch These 10 Germ-Infested Tourist Attractions; The Planet’s Most Amazing Trees and Where to Find Them; How to Get TSA PreCheck: Everything You Need to Know; 100 Best Things to Do in New York; The Science of Wanderlust; Bedbug Registry.com; The Most Stunning Caves in America @Thrillist; European Traveller's Guide to Drinking Water;15 Ultimate Things to Do in Boston;
Webmastering Tools How to Create an Animated GIF in Photoshop; Seven Sites With Free Photos You Can Use However You Want;
Web Resources SECURITY REPORT 2016/17; Malware 2016;How to master Google Chrome; What File System Should I Use for My USB Drive?; Ranking the Most Popular Websites by Demographic; Internet of Things in the enterprise: The state of play;Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?; World's Biggest Data Breaches; What is Data Breach? Data Breaches visualization shows the recent ones; Public cloud, private cloud, or hybrid cloud: What's the difference?;Your Smartphone Reduces Your Brainpower, Even If It's Just Sitting There - A silent, powered-off phone can still distract the most dependent users; What is cloud computing? Everything you need to know from public and private cloud to software as a service;Pwned websites - Breached websites that have been loaded into this service; World Wide Web Timeline; What kinds of people fall prey to identity theft, phishing, and hacks? It's not who you think; Cyberwar: The smart person's guide; Stuxnet: The smart person's guide; Identity Thieves Hijack Cellphone Accounts to Go After Virtual Currency; Microsoft cloud cybersecurity attacks up 300% in last year, report says; Ways Your Smartphone Can Wreck Your Health; Should We Fear the Rise of Intelligent Robots?; Ransomware: An executive guide to one of the biggest menaces on the web;Blue light has a dark side - Exposure to blue light at night, emitted by electronics and energy-efficient lightbulbs, harmful to your health;
Women's Health - Life Cycle LactMed
A TOXNET DATABASE - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed); Impact of Maternal Stress, Depression & Anxiety on Fetal Neurobehavioral Development;
Women's Health Issues Final Report: Opioid Use, Misuse, and Overdose in Women; Human Trafficking and Child Welfare: A Guide for Child Welfare Agencies;Maternal Depression Making a Difference Through Community Action: A Planning Guide; Straight Women Reveal The Specific Movements That Make Them Orgasm; Women's Experiences With Genital Touching, Sexual Pleasure, and Orgasm: Results From a U.S. Probability Sample of Women Ages 18 to 94; Intercourse isn't everything for most women, says study -- try 'outercourse'; Female orgasms aren't all that mysterious A new study suggests it's pretty easy to figure out.; Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000; Sexual Violence: Consequences; Sexual Violence - Facts at a Glance; Involving Men in Efforts to End Violence Against Women; Interpersonal and Physical Dating Violence among Teens; Understanding Perpetrators of Nonphysical Sexual Coercion: Characteristics of Those Who Cross the Line;
Women's Health - Breast and Other Female Cancers You Might Have a Higher Risk of Breast Cancer Due to These 5 Factors; These hormones may make breast cancer act like stem cells; Three Steps To Lower Breast Cancer Risk, New AICR Report; Outdoor light at night linked with increased breast cancer risk in women; The mystery of breast cancer; Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world;
Writing Why People From Manchester Are Mancunians, Not Manchesterians. Demonyms are vital to our conceptions of ourselves, but the rules behind them can be pretty messy; 20 of the Worst Typos, Grammatical Errors & Spelling Mistakes We've Ever Seen; How to Write Faster: 12 Unusual Hacks [Infographic]; PolitiFact's guide to fake news websites and what they peddle; Health Literacy Online - A guide to writing and designing
easy-to-use health Web sites; 7 words (and more) you shouldn’t use in medical news; How to Decide What to Blog About: 6 Data-Driven Tactics for Choosing Blog Topics; 4 Tips for Getting Your Work Emails Read and Answered; To boost your writing, pick tougher stuff to read; Employer Survey & Economic Trend Research;
Why Americans can’t write; Why can’t college graduates write?; Why so many college students are lousy at writing — and how Mr. Miyagi can help;
Why Many College Students Never Learn How to Write Sentence;From an Engineer to an Author, I Find These Writing Tips Really Helpful; The One Technique You Need to Turn Boring Writing into Compelling Words; Take 5 Minutes To Read And Improve Your Writing Skills Forever; Essential Editing and Proofreading Tools for Polish Academic Writing; 9 Academic Writing And Study Habits Used By Successful Students; 8 Tricks to Writing Quickly; How To Turn Sadness Into
Creativity; What’s the Best Way to Write a Blog Post? Marketers Weigh In; New section: Expressive Writing; New study says that writing can help you stop worrying; Are You A Frequent Worrier? New Study Shows How You Can Drastically Reduce Worry; 8 Reasons Why Writing Is A Great Life-Hack & Can Make You Healthier (Backed By Science); The puzzling way that writing heals the body; Scientific Studies Show How Writing In A Journal Can Actually Benefit Your Emotional & Physical Well-Being; Keeping a diary makes you happier;Fake news more likely to thrive online due to lowered fact-checking;
Career Resources 10 jobs for natural-born teachers; 8 changes experts made to vastly improve the real résumé of a mid-level job hunter; How to land your dream environmental job; 10 jobs for people who love to read;
Links to public health pages, SCSU Thesis/Special Project documents and forms, SCSU Public Health Alumni Pages - MPH Accreditation Committee, Scholarship Committee, Service Committee (Mentor, Speaker Programs) pages; MPH Alumni Record - Main, Accomplishments, Presentations, Professional organizations, Programs & Projects, Teaching, Written Works pages